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London Termini Past and Proposed: Features Radial Rail Which Offers Rail Improvements for London Including Enhancements for the Cross River Transit Tramway

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Mayor's Transport Strategy, Chapter five—transport proposals". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009 . Retrieved 21 October 2009. On 26 March 2010 it was posed with newly restored LSWR Brake Third No.1520 around and just north of Sheffield Park station, as seen in photos by Alex Morley and Derek Hayward below. Greater Western franchise – local and regional/commuter services from Paddington to West London and the Thames Valley The London bus network is extensive, with over 6,800 scheduled services every weekday carrying about six million passengers on over 700 different routes making it one of the most extensive bus systems in the world and by far the largest in Europe. [62] Catering mainly for local journeys, it carries more passengers than the Underground. In addition to this extensive daytime system, a 100-route night bus service is also operated, providing a 24-hour service.

There is a technical distinction between the motorways, operated by the Highways Agency, and other major routes, operated by TfL as the Transport for London Route Network (TLRN). Many of London's major radial routes continue far beyond the city as part of the national motorway and trunk road network. The North Wales Coast Line between Crewe and Holyhead is not electrified. Services between London, Chester and Holyhead are operated by Super Voyager tilting diesel trains. Formerly in the case of one of the Holyhead services, a Pendolino set was hauled from Crewe by a Class 57/3 diesel locomotive.

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Heathrow Express train prepares to depart from platform 3 at Heathrow Terminal 5 station with a service to London.

Other semi-orbital routes fared little better. Throughout the 20th century London's railways operated on a radial model and the few remaining semi-orbital passenger routes withered, with the lines used mainly for freight services. The national railway network was privatised with radial franchises. Only the Circle line enjoyed success. Stamp, Gavin (1 October 2007). "Steam ahead: the proposed rebuilding of London's Euston station is an opportunity to atone for a great architectural crime". Apollo: the international magazine of art and antiques. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007 . Retrieved 9 November 2007. London is the centre of an extensive radial commuter railway network which, along with Paris, is the busiest and largest in Europe, comprising 368 railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones, serving Greater London and the surrounding metropolitan area. Each terminus is associated with commuter services from a particular segment of this area. The majority of commuters to central London (about 80% of 1.1million) arrive by either the Underground (400,000 daily) or by surface railway into these termini (860,000 daily). [19]This class, designed by William Adams, was the result of the work made to replace the stop-gap 46 Class on suburban services around London. [1] In the event, they were also intended to supplement this class while members entered the works for rebuilding into "Radial Tank" configuration. [1] All were built from 1882, and were also intended for medium to heavy suburban passenger traffic around the South Coast on the LSWR railway network. [1] Construction history [ edit ] In addition to London's radial lines and cross-London routes, there are also several orbital National Rail lines connecting peripheral inner-London suburbs. These lines have been under the management of TfL since November 2007 and are operated by private contract under the London Overground brand. This commuter transport is operated as a rapid transit system with high-frequency services around a circular route with radial branch lines and is designed to reduce stress from the inner-city Tube network by allowing commuters to travel across London without going through the central Zone 1. [23] Another important section, the North Staffordshire Railway (NSR), which opened its route in 1848 from Macclesfield (connecting with the LNWR from Manchester) to Stafford and Colwich Junction via Stoke-on-Trent, also remained independent. Poor relations between the LNWR and the NSR meant that through trains did not run until 1867. [14]

The bus system has been the subject of much investment since TfL's inception in 2000, with consequent improvements in the number of routes (particularly night services), their frequency, reliability and the standard of the vehicles used. AT the northern end, the Caledonian replaced its original Southside terminus in Glasgow, with the much larger and better located Glasgow Central in 1879. [13] This railway would form a semi circle around the eastern side of Birmingham, starting in Wolverhampton and ending in Longbridge. The line would utilise parts or the full length of the existing Walsall to Wolverhampton, Sutton Park, Birmingham to Leicester, Camp Hill and Cross City lines. Butland, A. N. (1966). "Paper 3: Civil Engineering Works of the Euston Main Line Electrification Scheme". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Conference Proceedings. 181 (36): 51–64. doi: 10.1243/PIME_CONF_1966_181_107_02.The London Buses network and its branded services, the Red Arrow and East London Transit systems are managed by TfL through its arms-length subsidiary company, London Buses Ltd. As a result of the privatisation of London bus services in the mid-1990s, bus operations in London are put out to competitive tendering; routes are operated by a number of private companies, while TfL sets the routes, frequencies, fares and types of vehicle used ( Greater London was exempted from the bus deregulation in Great Britain). Transport companies may bid to run London bus services for a fixed price for several years, with incentives and penalties in place to encourage good performance against certain criteria. [66] The tendering system is open to transport operators from a global market, with the result that some London bus services are now operated by international groups such as RATP Group, the state-owned operator of the Paris public transport system. [27] [28] Operator

London Trams". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016 . Retrieved 9 November 2016. London Mayor confirms Ultra-Low Emission Zone will start in 2019". www.fleetnews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019 . Retrieved 25 July 2018. Between Birmingham New Street and Manchester Piccadilly and between Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley before joining or leaving the ECML

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Non-stop service between Central London and the Airport, serves Terminals 2 & 3, then terminates at Terminal 5

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